An asteroid impact in Quebec some 12,900 years ago has been linked for the first time to an intense climate shift, according to a new study led by Dartmouth researchers. The asteroid impact slaughtered the majority of the planet’s large mammals, forcing early humans to diversify into hunter-gatherer behaviors, rather than relying on hunting only big game for subsistence. The findings appear this week in the Early Edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The impact occurred at the beginning of the Younger Dryas period,
marking a sudden global change to a colder, dryer climate with extensive
effects on humans and animals. In North America, the big animals, such
as mastodons, camels, giant ground sloths, and saber-toothed cats, died
out. Their predators, known to archaeologists as the Clovis people,
turned their focus to a hunter-gatherer subsistence diet of roots,
berries and smaller game.
“The Younger Dryas cooling impacted human history in a profound
manner,” said Dartmouth Professor and study co-author Mukul Sharma.
“Environmental stresses may also have caused Natufians in the Near East
to settle down for the first time and pursue agriculture.”
According to Dartmouth researchers, there has long been controversy
over the cause of these environmental stresses, though scientists are in
agreement that these changes did indeed occur. The archetypal view of
the Younger Dryas cooling interlude has been that an ice dam in the
North American ice sheet ruptured, releasing a massive quantity of
freshwater into the Atlantic Ocean. The sudden influx is thought to
have shut down the ocean currents that move tropical water northward,
resulting in the cold, dry climate of the Younger Dryas. Read More